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Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The American Civil War: Letters and Diaries provides sophisticated searching across large numbers of primary documents, as well as table of contents access to a wide array of primary sources. It also provides a database of battles and events.

For novices who wish to get quick access to key documents, we recommend using the Tables of Contents and the Simple Search tools.

For scholars who wish to conduct in-depth searches we recommend using the Advanced Search, Memoirs Search, Diaries Search, and Letters Search tools.

1.2UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE DATABASE

There are three basic ways to use the database.

  • Browse Tables -- Use these to see what's contained in the database. This is the best way to check whether an author, a source, a date is included. It's also the best way to examine what personal or historical events are in the database. Simply click on the appropriate browse table button on the navigation bar.
  • Find Tools -- The "FIND" tools let you search for specific authors or specific works in the database. Find Authors returns a list of all authors that match your specific criteria. Find Sources returns a list of all sources (works and manuscripts) in the database. The difference between the "FIND" tools and the "SEARCH" tools (explained next) is in the results they give. The "FIND" tools do not return documents, but rather lists of sources and authors. Note the difference between a source (a collection of documents) and the documents themselves (items within a source).
  • Search Tools -- The "SEARCH" tools let you analyze words and documents that meet your search criteria. The "SEARCH" tools return documents or bibliographic citations or both. In this database a document is defined as a month of diary entries, or a letter, or editorial matter.
1.3SEARCH NAVIGATION BAR

The Search tools are divided into five separate categories, all of which search the texts in the database and return documents:

  • Simple Search - for novice users or those wishing to do a quick search. It provides basic searching
  • Diaries Search - a moderate number of fields, restricted to diaries
  • Memoirs Search - a moderate number of fields, restricted to memoirs
  • Letter Search - specific field searching for letters only
  • Advanced Search - all fields, except specific letter fields

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1.4 BROWSE NAVIGATION BAR

The Browse Navigation Bar lets you move around the Browse tools. It works in the same way as the Search Tool bar. When using these tools, the Tables of Contents are expanded and the Full Text Searches are collapsed. You can toggle between the two by clicking Tables of Contents or Full-Text Search.

The Browse tools are divided into seven separate categories, all of which provide quick access to specific documents within the database.

  • Authors - a list of every major author in the database
  • Sources - a complete list of every source (work or manuscripts) in the database
  • Months - every letter and diary entry organized by month
  • Places - memoirs, letters and diary entries organized by where they are written, sent and their subject
  • Personal Events - a list of key life events affecting authors, with all documents pertaining to each event
  • Events - gives a day-by-day breakdown of events during the war, licensed from E.B. Long.
The light brown color indicates which table of contents you are using. The brown moves as you move from tool to tool. You may click on the green parts of the Navigation bar to move to the appropriate tool. (The graphic above is just an illustration; it does not have live links.)

1.5 NOTES ON MARK-UP CONVENTIONS

Materials in the database have been transcribed using original spellings and grammar. In some documents spelling is inconsistent, even within a sentence.

For more information on mark-up conventions, contact the Editor.

1.6 ABOUT THE SEARCH SOFTWARE

PhiloLogic, a suite of software developed by the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago in collaboration with The University of Chicago Library's Electronic Text Services, provides sophisticated searching of a wide variety of large encoded databases on the World Wide Web. It is an easy to use, yet powerful, full-text search, retrieval, and reporting system for large multimedia databases (texts, images, sound) with the ability to handle complex text structures with extensive indexed metadata.

PhiloLogic in its simplest form serves as a document retrieval or look up mechanism whereby users can search a relational database to retrieve given documents and, in some implementations, portions of texts such as acts, scenes, articles, or head-words. This same document retrieval mechanism serves as the basis for defining a corpus in a full-text search. One can, for example, either retrieve all documents in a database written by women from 1935 through 1945 or one can search for words or phrases within database which fit those criteria. The typical PhiloLogic search is broken down into five distinct stages: 1) defining a corpus (i.e. limiting a search), 2) word expansion, 3) word index searching, 4) text extraction, and 5) link resolution and formatting (e.g., SGML to HTML conversion). In other words, after defining a corpus (or one may search an entire database), one can execute a single term, phrase or proximity search. By looking up indices of the word(s) in a relational database, PhiloLogic extracts blocks of text containing the search term(s) with links to larger blocks of text. These extracts are formatted to display on a Web browser and sometimes include links to images, sound recordings, other texts, or even other databases.

In addition to simple word and phrase searches, users can perform more sophisticated searches by using extended UNIX-style regular expressions for complex wildcard searching and, in some implementations, morphological and orthographic expansion. All of these mechanisms to expand words can be combined using Boolean operators such as OR (the vertical bar "|") and AND (a space) within a variety of searching contexts.

Its functions were originally designed for scholarly research in databases of literary, religious, philosophical, and historical collections of texts as well as important historical encyclopedias and dictionaries. PhiloLogic handles notes so as not to interfere with phrase searching. Users can easily search words with diacritics (either by specifying accents or ignoring them by typing in uppercase) and non-Romanized scripts. At present there are some fifty databases on the Web under PhiloLogic containing languages such as ancient Greek, Latin, Hindi, and Urdu as well as nearly all Western European languages. PhiloLogic can also be set up to recognize or ignore manuscript notations such as different brackets, which can indicate spurious text or editorial emendations. Because the software recognizes typical text structures as real data objects, it understands units, such as words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, and pages, permitting very flexible searching and retrieval of these textual objects. Other full-text engines on the market search for strings of characters. Rather than searching for two words within the same sentence or paragraph (intellectual units), other engines must search for two words within a certain number of characters regardless of sentence or paragraph. With PhiloLogic scholars always know where they are in a given text since pagination can be displayed along side other objects. Such a high degree of indexing can lead to decreases in speed, PhiloLogic indexing has been maximized such that it is still incredibly fast on the Web.

For more information on PhiloLogic, contact Catherine Mardikes, ETS Coordinator, The University of Chicago Library.

 

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2. FINDING TOOLS

2.1 FIND SOURCES

The Find Sources tool lets you find all the original works in the database that match your specific criteria. For example, you can find out all the sources published by the Pennsylvania Historical Society or see whether a particular edition is included.

Practical Example:
Find all sources that have slavery as a subject.

  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Find Sources.
  • Enter slavery in the Subject field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Sources see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

2.2 FIND AUTHORS

The Find Authors tool lets you find authors in the database that match your specific criteria. For example, you can find all the authors in the database that were born between 1820 and 1830.

Practical Example:
Find all journalists in the database.

  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Find Authors.
  • Enter Journalist in the Occupation field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Authors see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

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2.3 FIND EVENTS DAY-BY-DAY

The Find Events Day-by-Day tool lets you find events in the database that match your specific criteria. For example, you can find all events in the database that occurred in February 1864. This events database is comprised of the complete text of E.B Long's The Civil War Day-by-Day..

Practical Example:
Find all days in 1861 that discuss emancipation.

  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Find Events.
  • Enter 1861 in the Year field.
  • Enter emancipation in the Description of Day field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all events that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Events see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

2.4 FIND BATTLES

The Find Battles tool lets you find battles in the database that match your specific criteria. For example, you can find all the battles in the database that were fought in 1861 with fewer than 1,000 casualties.

Practical Example:
Find all battles fought in the Jackson's Valley Campaign.

  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Find Battles.
  • Enter Jackson's Valley Campaign in the Campaign field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all battles that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Battles see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

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3. SEARCHING

3.1 SEARCH OVERVIEW

There are two basic kinds of searching in the database.

  • Full-Text Searching enables you to do keyword searching for occurrences of words or phrases in the database.
  • Bibliographic Searching allows you to create a set of documents for subsequent full-text searching. When you conduct a Bibliographic search, you are using descriptive fields to execute the search.
The conventions used in each kind of searching are slightly different as shown below.

 

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3.2 FULL-TEXT SEARCHING

3.2.1 Full-Text Searching

Full-Text Searching is when you search for specific words or phrases that occur in the texts themselves.

PhiloLogic supports wildcard characters and Boolean (logical) operators, which are modeled on UNIX regular expressions to perform "pattern matching" in full-text searching. Pattern matching allows identification of a large number of words corresponding to a defined pattern. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection as well as for discovering potential emendations for uncertain readings. The most commonly used regular expression operators (wildcard and Boolean) are listed below.

3.2.2 Wildcard Characters in Full-Text Searching

 

. (period):
matches any single character (e.g., gentlem.n will retrieve gentleman and gentlemen).
* (asterisk):
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the beginning of a word (e.g., cigar* will match cigar, cigars, cigarette, etc.).
* (asterisk):
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the end of a word (e.g., *habit will retrieve habit, cohabit, and inhabit), or in the middle (e.g., c.*eers matches compeers, cheers, and careers).
.? (period question mark):
matches the characters entered or the characters entered plus one more character in place of the question mark (e.g., hono.?r matches both honor and honour and cat.? matches cat and cats, but not cathedral, Catherine, etc.).
[a-z] (brackets):
matches a single character found in the specified range (e.g., [c-f]at will match cat, dat, eat, and fat) or any letters within the brackets (e.g., civili[zs]e will match both civilize and civilise).
E (capital letter):
matches all accented and non-accented forms (e.g., to search navet regardless of accents type naIvetE).

Note: If you are using wildcard characters and would like to see a full list of the words matching your search-term, then run your search as a Frequency by Author search. The results page of a Frequency by Author search lists all the terms found in a database that match your search-term.

3.2.3 Wildcards and Boolean Operators in Full-Text Searching

  • The vertical line ( | ) is the OR operator (e.g., avarice|greed or holy ghost|spirit).
  • Space: serves as the AND operator in sentence and paragraph Proximity Searching (e.g., church state retrieve all cases where church and state appear in the same specified context; this is not the case in phrase searching).
  • These expressions can be combined for more sophisticated searches; for example, searching
    old|aged|ancient m.n|fellow*
    finds any of the three adjectives together with the nouns man or fellow in the singular or plural.

3.2.4 Punctuation and Full-Text Searching

  • Hyphens: Hyphens act as word separators. Thus, one should treat hyphenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g., if searching for all-powerful, type in all powerful).
  • Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes in them (e.g., only by typing God's will one find "God's"). In this database apostrophes do not act as word separators. Therefore contractions and elisions must be entered without spaces before or after the apostrophe.
  • Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction and realize that &c must be entered as simply c.

3.2.5 Selecting a Search Option

PhiloLogic at this time offers two kinds of searches: "Single Term and Phrase Search," which is set up as the default, and "Proximity Searching in the Same Sentence or Paragraph." One may select and deselect a search option by clicking on the "radio" buttons.

For a fuller discussion see the PhiloLogic User Manual

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3.3 FIELD SEARCHING

3.3.1 Searching in Specific Fields

When entering search terms in bibliographic fields, as opposed to the full text search box, use the following Boolean operators: uppercase AND, OR, and NOT. One can use a NOT operator by itself (e.g., in the Type field enter: NOT editorial). It must be the first term in the box with no spaces preceding and it cannot be used with other Boolean operators

3.3.2 Advanced Field Searching with Regular Expression Operators

As in full text searching, one can use regular expression operators for more specialized searching. The caret sign (^) at the beginning of a word anchors the match at the beginning of the entry (e.g., ^child will find the personal event "Childbirth," but not "Adoption of Child). One can also use the verticle line (|) as a Boolean operator OR. With this operator one can exclude two terms from one's search (e.g., NOT adams|burr).

3.3.3 Punctuation and Spacing in Fielded Searching

When entering terms, punctuation and spacing must match exactly that in the fields. The following marks of punctuation produce a "Nothing found" message: ampersand (&), parentheses, question mark, and double quotes (""). If necessary for searching, replace the mark of punctuation with a period, which stand for any single character.

 

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4. FIELDS AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS

4.1 LIST OF ALL FIELDS THAT CAN BE SEARCHED

Here is a summary table of all fields in the database, showing which tool they can be found on. Detailed descriptions can be found below.

 

Search Tools

Find
Simple Letter Diaries Memoirs Advanced Find Source Events Battle
#of Days to Death         X        
Age at Death         X X      
Age When Writing   X X   X        
Allegiance   X X X X X      
Author X X X X X X X    
Battle Description Keyword                 X
Battle Location                 X
Battle Name         X       X
Campaign                 X
Cause of Death   X X X X        
Confederate Losses                 X
Confederate Missing in Action                 X
Confederate Troop Size                 X
Confederate Wounded                 X
Day of Week               X X
Day Started   X     X     X X
Description of day               X  
Document Type X       X        
Duration                 X
Editor or Translator             X    
Educational Level   X X X X X      
Ethnicity           X      
Gender   X X X X X      
Leaders                 X
Marital Status (When Writing)         X        
Military Rank   X X X X X      
Military Status   X X X X        
Month Started                 X
Month Written   X X   X        
Occupation   X X X X X      
Overall Losses                 X
Parental Status (When Writing)         X        
Personal Events         X        
Place of Birth           X      
Place of Death           X      
Publisher             X    
Race   X X X X X      
Recipient Gender   X              
Recipient Relationship   X              
Recipient   X              
Record Number         X        
Religion   X X X X X      
Residence   X X X X X      
School (s) Attended   X X X X X      
Search Texts X X X X X        
Source Subject             X    
Source Type             X    
Subject Headings X X X X X        
Survived War         X X      
Theater                 X
Title             X    
Troop Size                 X
Union Losses                 X
Union Missing in Action                 X
Union Troop Size                 X
Union Wounded                 X
War Events         X        
Where Sent   X              
Where Written (Geographical)   X X   X        
Where Written (Setting)   X X   X        
Winner                 X
Year of Birth           X      
Year of Death           X      
Year of Publication             X    
Year Written X X X   X        
Year                 X

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4.2 FIELD DESCRIPTIONS WITH SAMPLE SEARCHES

4.2.1 # of Days to Death

Description: This is the number of days before the author died. It is calculated from the day of writing and the author's death date. In the case of diary entries it is rounded to within 30 days. It is not used with memoirs, where the date of writing is unclear, nor when a date cannot be determined.

How to use this field: Key in the number of days or range of days in the box # of Days to Death. For example, 5 or 40-50.

Practical Example:
Find documents by authors 50-100 days before they died.
Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts

  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search
  • Key in 50-100 in the # of Days to Death field. This will restrict the search to items written by 50-100 days before the author died.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.
Note: To search for occurrences where we have been unable to determine a value, key in 9999 in the field box.

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4.2.2 Age at Death

Description: This is the age when the author died and is calculated from their birth and death dates where they are available. This field can be searched using Advanced Search and Find Authors only.

How to use this field: Key in the age or range of ages in the box Age at Death. For example, 35-45.

Practical Example: See Age When Writing.

Note: To search for occurrences of letters or diaries where we have been unable to determine the author's age, key in 9999 in the field box.

 

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4.2.3 Age When Writing

Description: This field is the age in years of the author when a document was written.

How to use this field: Use this field when you want to restrict a search to materials written by an author at a particular time in their lives. It is particularly useful for examining changing perspectives over time, to explore differences in the vocabulary and preoccupations of the young and the old.

Practical Example:
Give me writings by men aged 10-20 where they use the word battle.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Key in battle*  to the Subject Headings field. By keying in the asterisk you will retrieve all words that begin with battle - like battles, battledore, battleship, battlefield, battlefields.
  • Key in 10-20 in the Age When Writing field. This will restrict the search to items written by authors aged 10-20.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Note: To search for occurrences of letters or diaries where the author's age is not known, key in 9999 in the field Box.

4.2.4 Allegiance

Description: This field indicates the allegiance of the writer - Confederacy, Union, neutral, switched or not indicated.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to authors with specific allegiances.

Practical Example:
You are looking for Union Generals described in the database:

 

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5.2.5 Author

Description: This is the name of the author of the letter, diary, or memoir. The same official form of the name is used for display regardless of the form the author used at the time of writing.

How to use this field: Use this field to analyze word usage or materials written by a particular author. To see if a particular author is included in the database, go to the Table of Contents: Authors. Names are entered surname, first name, middle name or initial.

Practical Example: Find all mentions of Fort Sumter in Mary Chesnut's writings.

4.2.6 Battle Location

Description: This is the place where a battle was fought. The place name is often, but not always, the battle name. You will be able to either see details of the battle, or link to records written about the battle from this search. If you are searching for all the records from a State, please use the full State name rather than the State abbreviation.

How to use this field: Use this field to find information about where specific battles were fought..

Practical Example:
Find all the battles fought in a Charleston, South Carolina:

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Key Charleston, SC (note postal abbreviation) in the Battle Location box. If you are not sure of the location name, click on the Terms button to the right of the search box for a listing of geographic locations. Use your browser's back button to return to Find Battles and key in the location name.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.

 

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4.2.7 Battle Name

Description: This field indicates the battle name and includes alternate names for battles. The display name for the battle will be the same regardless of which alternate name is searched. You will be able to either see details of the battle, or link to records written about the battle from this search. The phrase "Battle of" has not been included in battle names. This version of the field is available only in the Find Battles screen. In Advanced Search this field also contains other historical events that occured during the American Civil War.

How to use this field: Use this field to find information about specific battles.

Practical Example:
You are looking for information about the First Battle of Bull Run:

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Key First Bull Run into the Battle Name field. If you are unsure of the battle name, click on the Terms button to the right of the battle name field box for a listing of battle names. Use your browser's back button to return to Find Battles and key in the battle name.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.

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4.2.8 Campaign

Description: This field contains the names of the campaigns conducted during the civil war. Specific battles were fought as parts of campaigns.

How to use this field:
The main use of this field is to determine what battles were fought as part of a certain campaign.

Practical Example:
Find what battles were fought as part of the Grant's Overland Campaign.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Scroll down to Campaigns and enter the name of the campaign. If you are unsure of the name of the campaign, click the Terms button to the right of the campaigns search box for a list. Use your browser's back button to return to Find Battles and key in the campaign name.
  • Click the SEARCH button to see the list of battles for the campaign.

 

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4.2.9 Cause of Death

Description: This field allows you to search the controlled vocabulary of causes of death. It is a controlled field with a special vocabulary. These terms can be seen by clicking the Terms button to the right of the search box. This field is found in Find Authors and all the Search Texts screens except Simple Search.

How to use this field: This field can be used to find authors who died a certain way (e.g. from wounds, in battle, or illness).

Practical Example:
Find me all authors who died in accidental deaths.

  • Click on the navigation bar to go to Find Authors.
  • Key in Accident in the search box. If you are unsure of the terms, use the Terms button to the right of the search box. Use your browsers back button to return to Find Authors and key in the term.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of authors who died of in an accidental death.

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4.2.10 Confederate Losses

Description: This field indicates the number of soldiers lost in a particular battle.

How to use this field: Use this field to find battles with specific casualty figures.

Practical Example:
Find all battles with between 8,000 and 10,000 casualties.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battle.
  • Scroll down to the Confederate Losses field.
  • Key 8000-10000 into the search box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all battles meeting this criteria.

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4.2.11 Confederate Missing in Action

Description: This field indicates the number of soldiers reported missing in action.

How to use this field: Use this field to find battles in which a specific number of soldiers have been reported as missing.

Practical Example:
Find me all battles in which more than 500 soldiers were reported as missing.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battle..
  • Scroll down to the  Confederate Missing in action field.
  • Key in the search 500-3000.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system returns a list of battles in which between 500 and 3,000 soldiers were reported missing.

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4.2.12 Confederate Troop Size

Description: This field indicates the size of the army (troops) that fought at a specific battle.

How to use this field: Use this field when you want to find the Confederate troop size.

Practical Example:
Find me battles in which more than 60,000 people fought.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Scroll down to the Confederate Troop Size box.
  • Key in 60000-150000.
  • The system responds with a list of all battles in which the confederate troop size was between 60,000 and 150,000

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4.2.13 Confederate Wounded

Description: This field indicates the number of wounded in a particular wounded.

How to use this field: Use this field to find battles according to how many soldiers were wounded during in a bootlegger battle.

Practical Example:
Find me battles in which fewer than 100 confederate soldiers were wounded.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Scroll down to the Confederate Wounded search box.
  • Key in 1-100
  • The system responds with a list of all battles in which fewer than 100 soldiers were wounded.

 

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4.2.14 Day of Month

Description: This contains the day of a month in numerals. It is not used for diaries and memoirs.

How to use this field: The main use of this field is to determine what was written on a specific day or days. It should be used with caution, because the field can only be used with letters (see note below). Do not key in anything other than numerals into this field.

Practical Example:
Does the database contain any letters written within in the 20 days following January 7th, 1862?

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Search Letters.
  • Scroll down to Year Written - enter 1862.
  • Enter 1 in the Month Written box.
  • Enter 7-27 in the Day of Month box.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Note: This field is only available for letters because the diary entries are considered as months. So the most specific searching possible for diaries is by month.

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4.2.15 Day of Week

Description: This field contains the day of the week on which a battle or event started.

How to use this field: The main use of this field is to determine what was written on a specific day or days. It should be used with caution, because the field can only be used with letters (see note below). Do not key any numerals into this field.

Practical Example:
Which battles started on Sundays?

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Find Battles.
  • Enter sunday in the Day of Week box.
  • The system responds with a list of all battles that began on a Sunday.

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4.2.16 Document Type

Description: This field details the type of document. Every item in the database has been categorized as Letter, Diary, or Memoir.

How to use this field: This field can be used to restrict a search to include letters, diaries, or memoirs only.

Practical Example:
Find me all letters where the author has been wounded.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Key in wounded into the Personal Events box.
  • Use the pull down menu next to Document Type to select letters only.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.
  • You'll see a list of your letters by authors who have been wounded.

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4.2.17 Duration

Description: This field is a controlled field used to search for battles based on their duration. 

How to use this field: Use this field to find battles that lasted a certain amount of time.

Practical Example:
Find me all battles that lasted more than three days.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Choose Three days or more off the drop down list provided.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all battles lasting more than three days.

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4.2.18 Editor

Description: This field describes the compiler, editor, translator or author of the source title. The name is entered surname, first name, followed by a comma, and the abbreviation of the function filled (i.e. ed., comp., tr., introd., notes) if not the author.

How to use this field: This field is only available in the Find Sources section of the database. It allows users to find works translated or edited by specific individuals.

Practical Example:
Find me all sources edited by Mary E. Dewey.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Sources.
  • Key in dewey in the Editor or Translator box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

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4.2.19 Educational Level

Description: This field describes the level to which an author was educated.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors based on their educational level.

Note: Use "Not indicated" to find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the author's educational level.

Practical Example:
Find me authors who have a college education.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Scroll down to the Educational Level box. Key in finished college. 
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors who have completed college.

Note: To see what Educational Level terms are available click the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the box. Be careful to delete any extraneous spaces or semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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4.2.20 Ethnicity

Description: This field describes the national origin of an authors family. If an author is Black, but no specific origins are known, African is the ethnicity. Ethnicity can be double headed to reflect a multi-ethnic background (e.g. Jewish and Russian). This field is available in the Find Authors search and all Search Text options except the Simple Search.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all authors of a specific ethinicity.

Practical Example:
Find me all German authors.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Go to Ethnicity and key in German.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors who are of German ethnicity.

Note: Ethnicity is a controlled vocabulary field. For a list of ethnicities, click on the Terms button to the right of the search box. Use your browser back button to go back to the search screen. Be sure to delete extraneous spaces and characters such as semi-colons.
 

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4.2.21 Event Description/Battle Description/Description of Day

Description: This field provides the description of a day's events from E.B. Long's Civil War Day-by-Day or battle descriptions written by our Editors. 

How to use this field: Use this field to search the full text of the day-by-day descriptions of the years during the Civil War.

Practical Example:
Find me days that discuss the James River.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Find Events.
  • Enter James River in the Description of Day box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.22 Gender of author

Description: This is the gender of the author.

How to use this field: This field is available in Find Authors and all Search Texts fields except Simple Search. This field is useful for analyzing the differences between how men and women write to each other and about major events of the day. You may choose M (male), F (female) or ALL from drop down box.

Practical Example:
Find me diaries written by men.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Diaries Only Search.
  • Scroll down to the Gender box. Select M.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.23 Leaders

Description: This field provides the names of commanders of battles.

How to use this field: This field is only available in the Find Battles search. Use this to find battles commanded by specific people.

Practical Example:
Find me all battles where P.G.T. Beauregard was a battle leader.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Key in Beauregard in the Leaders box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all battles where P.G.T. Beauregard was the battle commander.
     

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4.2.24 Marital Status

Description: This describes the marital status of the author at the time of writing.

How to use this field: This field is only available in the Advanced Search section of the database. It is useful for analyzing differences in vocabulary between married and unmarried individuals in describing events of the day.

Practical Example:
Find all writings by people who were widowed at the time of writing.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Scroll down to the Marital Status box. Enter Widowed.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.25 Military Rank

Description: This provides the author's military rank at the time of writing. Authors whose ranks are unknown are represented as Not indicated. Authors who were civilians, and thus did not hold any rank, are shown with the rank Not applicable.

How to use this field: This field can be used to analyze the language used by differing ranks within the various armies..

Practical example: Find all writings by Major-Generals.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Key in maj-general into the Military Rank box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

    Note:  Terms in this field are standardized. A listing of terms is available by clicking the Terms button.  Use your browser's back button to return to the search screen.

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4.2.26 Military Status

Description: This field details an author's military status.

How to use this field: This field can be used from Find Authors and all Search Text screens except Simple Search.

Practical Example: Find all authors who were Military Support.

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4.2.27 Month of Battle/Event

Description: This is a composite field to be used in conjunction with the Year in the Find Battle screen.

How to use this field: This field can be used to find battles fought at a specific time of the year.

Practical example: Find battles fought between March and July of 1863.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Key 3-7 in the Month Started box
  • Key 1863 in the Year Started box
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all battles fought between March and July, 1863.

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4.2.28 Month Written

Description: This field enables you to view all letters or diaries written within a particular month.

How to use this field: Use this field when you want to restrict your searches to all letters or diary entries sent in a particular month or group of months.

Practical Example:
Find me letters sent April to May of 1865.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Scroll down to the Year Written box. Key in 1865.
  • Scroll down to the Month Written box. Key in 4-5.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences of letters written between April and May of 1865.
  • Click on the Titles to go directly to the letters.

Note: To locate materials where we have been unable to determine the month written, enter 9999 in the Month Written field.

 

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4.2.29 Occupation

Description: This field describes the author's occupation, if any.

How to use this field: Use this field to find documents written by an author in a particular occupation - for example, all Teachers.

Note: All occupations throughout an author's life are entered. This is not tied to when the author is writing. An individual may have several occupations through their life.

Practical Example:
Find me diaries written by diplomats.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Scroll down to the Occupation box. Key in Diplomat.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

To see what Occupation terms are available click the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the box. Be careful to delete any extraneous spaces or semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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4.2.30 Overall Losses

Description: This field details the overall losses in battles. This is the combined number of Union and Confederate dead, wounded and missing.

How to use this field: Use this field to find battles based on their overall losses.

Practical Example:
Find me all battles where fewer than 100 people total were lost.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Scroll down to the Overall Losses box and key in 0-100
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • They system responds with a listing of all battles meeting the criteria.

Note: Open ended searches can be conducted by leaving one side of the dash open. A search for more than four thousand lost, where you want all the battles, key in 4000- to complete the search. A search of -1000 will return battles where the losses numbered less than 1,000.

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4.2.31 Parental Status

Description: Use this field to find authors who have had children.

How to use this field: This field is useful for analyzing language in documents whose authors are parents as opposed to authors who are not.

Practical Example:
Find me all documents written by fathers.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Advanced Search.
  • Scroll down to the Parental Status (When writing) and choose Father off the drop-down list.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return a list of documents written when the authors were fathers.

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4.2.32 Personal Events

Description: This is a controlled field that describes key events in an author's life.

How to use this field: For a full list of all terms used in the database you can either go to the Table of Contents: Personal Events or you can click on the Terms button adjacent to the field. Use this field to restrict your search to documents pertaining to a key event, such as childbirth or the death of a spouse.

Practical Example:
Find all references to the word "joy" in documents that have "Death of child" as a personal event.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Key in Joy into the Search Texts box.
  • Scroll down to the Personal Events box. Enter death of child. If you didn't know that this was a correct term you could click the Terms button adjacent to the field for a list of possible terms.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.33 Place of Birth

Description: This field describes the location of the author's birth, if known. It is used only in the Find Author section of the database. It is an Optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors born in a particular place or region.

Note: Use "Not indicated" to find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the place of birth.

Practical Example:
Find me authors born in Virginia.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Scroll down to the Place of Birth box. Key in Virginia.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

To see what Place of Birth terms are available click the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the box. Be careful to delete any extraneous spaces or semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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4.2.34 Place of Death

Description: This field describes the location of the author's death, if known. It is used only in the Find Author section of the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who died in a particular place or region.

Note: Use "Not indicated" to find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the place of death.

Practical Example:
Find me authors who died in Massachusetts.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Scroll down to the Place of Death box. Key in Massachusetts.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

To see what Place of Death terms are available click the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the box. Be careful to delete any extraneous spaces or semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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4.2.35 Publisher

Description: This field indicates the name of the publisher of the source work. It is used only in the Find Sources section of the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all source works by particular publisher.

Practical Example:
Find me sources that were privately published.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Sources.
  • Scroll down to the Publisher box. Key in privately published.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: Publisher names are standardized and may vary from the form of the name that appears on the source's title page.

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4.2.36 Race

Description: This field indicates whether the authors was White, Black, Asian, American Indian or not indicated.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all documents written by authors from a particular race or races.

Practical Example:
Find me all Black authors.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Scroll down to the Race box. Key in Black.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all Black authors.

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4.2.37 Recipient Gender

Description: This field is the gender of the person to whom the letter is addressed..

How to use this field: This field is available only in the Search Letters screen of the database. It s useful for analyzing the differences in vocabulary in letters written to people of the opposite gender.

Practical Example:
Find me all letters from men to women.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Letters.
  • Scroll down to the Recipient Gender box. Choose F off the drop-down list.
  • In the Gender box at top, choose M off the drop-down list.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return of list of documents written by men to women.

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4.2.38 Recipient

Description: This is the name of the person to whom a letter is addressed.

How to use this field: This field is only available in the Search Letters section of the database.

Practical Example:
Find me all letters written from Benjamin Butler to Sarah Hildreth Butler.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Letters.
  • Enter Butler, Benjamin in the Author box.
  • Scroll down to the Recipient box. Enter Butler, Sarah.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return of list of letters written from Benjamin Butler to Sarah Butler
  • Note: Names are entered surname, first name, initial.

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4.2.39 Recipient Relationship

Description: This field contains the relationship of the addressee to the author.

How to use this field: This field is only available in the Search Letters section of the database.

Practical Example:
Find me all letters to husbands discussing by wives experiencing pregancy

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Letters.
  • Scroll down to the Recipient Relationship box. Enter spouse
  • Enter pregnancy in the Subject Headings box.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return of list of relevant letters

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4.2.40 Record Number

Description: Use this field to find a document by it's record ID number.

How to use this field: Use this field when you know the specific record ID number you are searching for.

Note: Record numbers must be added "SXXXX-DXXX" in order to be found. Numbering conventions begin at 001. 

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4.2.41 Religion

Description: This field gives an author's religion.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors of a specific religion. It is useful for analyzing language and attitudes of adherents of different religions.

Practical Example:
Find me all Quaker authors.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Key Quaker into the Religion field.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return a list of authors who are Quaker.

Note: To see a listing of all available religions, click the Terms button to the right. Use your browser's back button to return to the search screen. Be sure to delete extraneous spaces and characters such as semicolons.

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4.2.42 Residence

Description: This field provides information about where the author lived immediately prior to the Civil War.

How to use this field: This field is useful for analyzing attitudes and views of authors from different parts of the United States. This field is available in the Find Authors search as well as all Search Texts screens except the Simple Search.

Practical Example:
Find me all authors from Massachusetts

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Scroll down to the Residence field and key in Massachusetts.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return a list of authors from Massachusetts.

Note: A list of states as residences is available by clicking the Terms button to the right of the search box. Return to the search screen by using your browser's back button. Be sure to delete extraneous spaces and characters such as semi-colons.

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4.2.43 School(s) Attended

Description: This field details the names of the schools where author's were students.

How to use this field: Use this field to search for authors who attended specific schools. This field is available in Find Authors and all Search Texts screens except the Simple Search screen.

Practical Example:
Find me all authors who attended the United States Military Academy at West Point.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Key West Point into the search field.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return a list of authors who attended West Point.

Note: A list of schools is available by clicking on the Terms button to the right of the search box. Use your browser's back button to return to the search screen. Be sure to delete any extraneous spaces.

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4.2.44 Source Type

Description: This field details the type of source.

How to use this field: This field can be used from Find Sources only to restrict a search to a type of source.

Practical Example:

  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Find Sources.
  • Key in Historical Society in the Publisher box.
  • Use the pull down menu under Source Type to select Diary.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.45 Source Subject

Description: Use this field to find subject headings for particular sources. The subject terms for this field are general in nature.

Practical Example:Find me all sources with War as a subject.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Sources.
  • Scroll down to Subject Headings Key in war.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will respond with a listing of source titles with  the subject war in them.

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4.2.46 Subject Headings

Description: This is a composite field consisting of all terms in the Name Subject field, Organization Subject field, Historical Events Subject field, Topical Subject field, Broad Subject field, and Geographic Subject field.

How to use this field: This field can be used to find a wide range of materials, including specific places, people, and historical events.

Practical example: Find all materials pertaining to Boston.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Simple Search.
  • Key in Boston into the Subject Headings box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Practical example: Find all materials about the Battle of Stono Ferry.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Simple Search.
  • Key Stono in the Subject Headings box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Practical example: Find all materials pertaining to the U.S. Sanitary Commission

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Simple Search.
  • Key sanitary commission into the Subject Headings box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Practical example: Find all materials pertaining to alcohol and temperance.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Simple Search.
  • Key alcohol AND temperance into the Subject Headings box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

To see what Subject terms are available click the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the box. Be careful to delete any extraneous spaces or semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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4.2.47 Survived War

Description: Use this field to identify authors who did or did not survive the Civil War.

Practical Example:
Find me all authors who did not survive the Civil War.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Choose Died off the drop down list at Survived War.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return a list of authors who died during the Civil War.

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4.2.48 Theater

Description: Lists the geographic areas in which the Civil War took place. The theaters were determined by the United States Park Service definitions.

How to use this field: Use this field to find documents about a specific geographical region in relation to the Civil War.

Practical Example:
Find me all letters written about the Main Western theater.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Key Main Western Theater into the Theater search box.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return a list of documents written about the theater.

Note: For a list of Civil War theaters, click the Terms button to the right of the search box. Use your browser's back button to return to the search screen. If cutting and pasting, be sure to delete any extraneous spaces from the end of the term.

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4.2.49 Title

Description: Use this field to find sources by title. It is used only in the Find Sources section of the database. It is a mandatory field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find sources with specific words in the title.

Practical Example:
Find me all sources with memoir in the title.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Sources.
  • Scroll down to the Title box. Key in memoir*.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.50 Troop Size

Description: This field is used for the overall number (Confederate and Union combined) of soldiers at a Civil War action.

How to use this field: Use this field to find battles in which a certain number of people fought.

Practical Example:
Find me all battles where fewer than 1,000 troops were engaged.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Scroll down to the Troop Size box. Key 1-1000 into the search box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.51 Union Losses

See Confederate Losses

4.2.52Union Missing in Action

See Confederate Missing in Action

4.2.53 Union Troop Size

See Confederate Troop Size

4.2.54Union Wounded

See Confederate Wounded

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4.2.55 War Events

Description: Use this field to find documents that highlight events specific to life during a war. This field is available only in Advanced Search.

How to use this field: Use this field when you want to search for people's personal experiences with events that happen as a result of military actions.

Practical example: Find all documents that recount instances of mutiny.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Scroll down to the War Events field and key in "mutiny".
  • Click the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of documents that fulfill the critera.

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4.2.56 Where Sent (Geographical)

See Where Written (Geographical)

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4.2.57 Where Written (Geographical)

Description: This field is used to identify the location where letters or diaries were written. The names are standardized in an authority file. Generally specific localities will be used (e.g., Boston, MA, but there may also be state or regional locations used. State abbreviations for cities and towns are based upon the United States postal service two letter abbreviations.

How to use this field: Use this field when you want to restrict your searches to materials written from a particular place.

Practical Examples
Find all letters or diaries written in a particular place.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Scroll down to the Where Written (Geographical) box.
  • Key the word or phrase you're looking for (e.g. Massachusetts or Mass)
  • Click on the SEARCH button.

Find me letters sent from the Yorktown, VA in 1862.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Scroll down to the Year Written box. Key in 1862.
  • Scroll down to the Document Type box. Select Letter.
  • Scroll down to the Where Written (Geographical) box. Enter Yorktown, VA. Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.
  • Click on the Titles to go directly to the letters.

To see what Geographical terms are available click the Terms buttons. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the box. Be careful to delete any extraneous spaces or semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

Note: In the case of a diary where the location changes over a month, the where written at the beginning of the month is described.

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4.2.58 Where Written (Setting)

Description: This field describes the place the author is writing from (i.e., city, town, farm, shipboard, etc.).

How to use this field: Use this field when you want to restrict your searches to all letters or diary entries written in a particular kind of place - e.g. shipboard.

Practical Example:
Do you have any letters written while on board ships in the database?

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts.
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advanced Search.
  • Scroll down to the Document Type box. Select Letter.
  • Scroll down to the Where Written (Setting). Click on the Terms button adjacent to this. This is to allow you to see all terms.
  • The system responds with a list of all terms in the Where Written (Setting) field that are available for Letters. You'll see the term Shipboard listed.
  • Now return to the previous search screen by clicking your browser's back tool and enter Shipboard. Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
  • Click on the linked Titles to go directly to the letters.
Note: In the case of a diary where the location changes over a month, the setting at the beginning of the month is described. The terms are standardized in an authority list.

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4.2.59 Winner  

Description: The results of battles are found listed in this field. A battle was won by either the Union or the Confederacy, or it was inconclusive.

How to use this field: Use this field to find battles won by a specific side during the Civil War.

Practical Example:
Find all battles won by the Confederacy.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Choose Confederate from the drop down box at Winner.
  • Click the SEARCH button.
  • The system will return a list of Confederate victories.

 

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4.2.60 Year of Battle/Event

Description: This field displays the year a battle took place.

How to use this field: Use this to find battles fought during a specific year.

Practical Example:
Find me battles fought in 1865.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Battles.
  • Enter 1865 into the Year field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.61 Year of Death

Description: This field describes the year of the author's death, if known. It is used only in the Find Author section of the database. It is an Optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who died in a particular year or period.

Note: To search for occurrences where we could not ascertain the year of death, key in 9999.

Practical Example:
Find me authors who died during the Civil War.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Scroll down to the Year of Death box. Key in 1861-1865.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.62 Year of Birth

Description: This field describes the year of the author's birth, if known. It is used only in the Find Author section of the database. It is an Optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who were born in a particular year or period.

Note: To search for occurrences where we could not ascertain the year of birth, key in 9999.

Practical Example:
Find me authors born after 1850.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Authors.
  • Scroll down to the Year of Birth box. Key in 1850-1900.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors born after 1850.

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4.2.63 Year of Publication (Source)

Description: This field describes the year of the source's publication. It is used only in the Find Sources section of the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find sources that were published in a particular year or period.

Practical Example:
Find me sources published between 1860 and 1865

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Sources.
  • Scroll down to the Year of Publication box. Key in 1860-1865.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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4.2.64 Year Written

Description: This field describes the year in which the letter or diary was written.

How to use this field: Use this field when you want to restrict your searches to all letters or diary entries written in a particular year or range of years.

Practical Example:
Find discussions of readmission of Confederate states to the Union in 1860-1865

  • Click on the navigation bar to Search Texts
  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Advance Search
  • Scroll down to the Year Written box. Type in 1860-1865. 
  • Scroll down to the Subject Headings box. Type in readmission. 
  • Click on the SEARCH button. 
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences. 
  • Click on the Titles to go directly to the documents.

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5. RESULTS

5.1 OCCURRENCES WITH CONTEXT/CONTEXT DISPLAY

Occurrences with Context Display is the default results format option. This report indicates the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered in a defined corpus, and the total number of occurrences found. (The number of occurrences displays at the top of the report if PhiloLogic has detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences. If not, the total number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report.) Following this general information is a list of occurrences.

Each occurrence is represented by a short citation consisting of abbreviations for the author's name and the title of the work with a reference to where the term(s) in question occur within the document. (Full entries for the short citations are listed in the Results Bibliography at the bottom of the report.) Along side the citation is listed several levels of context, shown in blue in the example below (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).

 


1. Winslow, Harriet Wadsworth Lathrop. "Diary of Harriet Wadsworth Winslow, August, 1814"
[Page 29 | Paragraph | Section | Document]

cordial welcome." 21. --When I reflect on the multitudes of my fellow-creatures who are perishing for lack of vision, and that I am living at ease, without aiding in the promulgation of the Gospel, I am almost ready to wish myself a man, that I might spend my life with the poor heathen. But I check the thought, and would not alter one plan of Infinite wisdom. I could, however, cheerfully endure pain and hardship for them, and for my dear Redeemer. Has he not given his life for multitudes now perishing, as well as for my soul? And Oh, how basely ungrateful and selfish in


 

  • The citation indicates the original source of the material.
  • Page 29 - indicates the page where the occurrence was found. Pages, whenever possible, refer to the page of the print edition. Click on it to go to the page.
  • Paragraph - indicates the paragraph where the occurrence was found. Click on it to go to the Paragraph.
  • Section - indicates the Section where the occurrence was found. In the case of a letter this is usually the same as the Document, but in the case of a diary this is a day of the month. Click on Section to go to it.
  • Document - indicates the entire document (in the case of a diary this is a month of entries). Click to view the whole document.

Below the short citation there is a passage of text consisting of some forty words on either side of the key word, which is highlighted. PhiloLogic, however, displays as much text as needed to capture all words in a multi-term search and all search words are highlighted. The reference listed with the short citation is linked to the text. If clicking on the page number, one retrieves the full page with key words still highlighted. The same is true for paragraph and the three other levels of hierarchy. Links to the previous and next page, paragraph or levels respectively, if they exist, are provided.

Note: Remember that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the context display expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times the text displayed in a proximity search to accommodate all the search terms may be several screens in length since some paragraph divisions in documents in some databases are very far apart.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of one hundred. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for down-loading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. 908 occurrences have been generated so far. (please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress) ". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

 

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5.2 LINE-BY-LINE DISPLAY

The Line-by-Line display indicates the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered in a defined corpus, and the total number of occurrences found. (The number of occurrences displays at the top of the report if PhiloLogic has detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences. If not, the total number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report.) Following this general information is a list of occurrences. Each occurrence is represented by a short citation consisting of abbreviations for the author's name and the title of the work with a reference to where the term(s) in question occur within the document. References (E.g. Bayley:D1266-14) are a concatenation of an Author abbreviation, the document identifier within the database, and the Page Number. The report is followed by the Results Bibliography, wherein you can find a full citation for the References in the report. Here is an example of the Line-by-Line display (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).

 


Bibliographic criteria: doctype=diary
Searching 1333 documents for scrup.*. Your search found 6 occurrences

Context Display Sorted by Author Sorted by Source

1. Morris:D43-3 (p.27)re. Jan. 31st, 1777 The scruples of my own mind being satisfied
2. Kemble:D757-4 (p.251)> time, Mrs.----, less scrupulous and without asking my leave
3. Dawson:D373-9 (p.263)rprise, so we did not scruple to leave Lilly.... The Baton Ro
4. Dawson:D373-6 (p.127) The soldiers did not scruple to laugh at us. Those who were
5. Dawson:D373-8 (p.219)of Charlie, so had no scruples about offering their services;
6. Dawson:D373-8 (p.230)ked because he was so scrupulously neat while the others were


A Line-by-Line Display differs from a Context Report in that it limits the text displayed to only a single line of text. The search term, which is highlighted, is centered in the line so that a user can quickly scan the results. At the bottom of the report one finds the Results Bibliography, which lists the full references for the short citations above. Unlike the Context report, a Line-by-Line Display only offers one level of linked context.

The user may toggle from the Line-by-Line Display to a Context Report or to the results sorted by Author and Sorted by Source.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of one hundred. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for down-loading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. [908] occurrences have been generated so far. (please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress) ". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

Note: When executing a "Proximity Search," especially with paragraph set as the searching parameter, it is best to avoid the Line-by-line format since all search terms are not likely to be in the single line of text displayed. The term that is located first in the paragraph is the one that is centered in the single line of text. Using the Context results format ensures that all terms are included in the display even if the paragraph should happen to run for several pages. One can switch from a Line-by-line format to a Context Report format at any time while viewing results and switch back. PhiloLogic takes the user to the same set of results being viewed at the time of the switch.

 

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5.3 SORTING RESULTS BY AUTHOR

Results can be sorted using a Sorted by Author report. This report indicates how many times a work occurred in documents by a particular author. To do this choose Frequency by Author at the bottom of the Letter, Diary or Advanced Search screens, or select Sort by Author from the Context or Line by Line display.

A Sorted by Author report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by author in descending order of frequency with individual titles listed with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term school.* in the database searches for all these unique terms above). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).

 


Bibliographic criteria: doctype=diary
Searching 1333 documents for convalesc.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 5

Search Terms: convalescence | convalescent | convalescents | convalescing | Convalescent

Your search found 10 occurrences.


Frequency by Author in descending numeric order:

1. Gibbons, Abigail Hopper, 1801-1893: 8
2: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, August, 1862[Occurrences]
2: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, November, 1861[Occurrences]
1: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, April, 1863[Occurrences]
1: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, March, 1863[Occurrences]
1: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, September, 1862[Occurrences]
1: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, July, 1862[Occurrences]
2. Winslow, Harriet Wadsworth Lathrop, 1796-1833: 1
1: Diary of Harriet Wadsworth Winslow, May, 1820[Occurrences]
3. Cary, Anne M.: 1
1: Diary of Anne M. Cary, October, 1827[Occurrences]


Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context display format. Note: the sets of occurrences linked to from the frequency report are numbered in chronological order, not by frequency. In other words, clicking on the [Occurrences] link for a title at the top of the list could, for example, bring up occurrences numbered 21-28 instead of 1-8 because that author's title while ranked first in frequency is not first chronologically.

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5.4 SORTING RESULTS BY SOURCE

Results can be sorted using a Sorted by Source report. To do this choose Frequency by Source at the bottom of the Letter, Diary or Advanced Search screens, or click on Sort by Source when in a context display.

This report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term school.* in the database searches for all these unique terms above). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).

 


Bibliographic criteria: doctype=letter
Searching 1181 documents for measles.
Number of Unique Forms: 2

Search Terms: measles | Measles

Your search found 3 occurrences.


Frequency by Source in descending numeric order:

1. Life of Abby Hopper Gibbons: Told Chiefly through Her Correspondence, vol. 2: 2
2: Gibbons, Abigail Hopper, 1801-1893 Letter from Abigail Hopper Gibbons to Susan Hopper, June 6, 1863[Occurrences]
2. Life of Abby Hopper Gibbons: Told Chiefly through Her Correspondence, vol. 1: 1
1: Gibbons, Abigail Hopper, 1801-1893 Letter from Abigail Hopper Gibbons to Anne Warren Weston and Deborah Weston, March 24, 1841[Occurrences]


The Frequency by Source Report is useful if one is curious how frequently an author uses term(s) in one work as compared to his/her other works or in his/her works as compared to others' works.

Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context Display format. Note: the sets of occurrences linked to from the frequency report are numbered in chronological order, not by frequency. In other words, clicking on the [Occurrences] link for a title at the top of the list could, for example, bring up occurrences numbered 21-28 instead of 1-8 because that title while ranked first in frequency is not first chronologically.

 

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5.5 SORTING RESULTS BY YEAR (FREQUENCY BY YEAR)

Results can be sorted by using a Frequency by Year report. This report indicates how many times a work occurred in documents in a particular year. To do this choose Frequency by Year at the bottom of the Letter, Diary or Advanced Search screens.

A Frequency by Year report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term craft* in the database searches for these unique terms). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).

 


Bibliographic criteria: doctype=letter
Searching 1181 documents for craft.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 3

Search Terms: craft | crafty | Crafts

Your search found 10 occurrences.


Frequency by Year in descending numeric order:

1. 1839: 4
2: Kemble, Frances Anne, 1809-1893 Letter from Frances Anne Kemble to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, 1839[Occurrences]
1: Kemble, Frances Anne, 1809-1893 Letter from Frances Anne Kemble to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, 1839[Occurrences]
1: Kemble, Frances Anne, 1809-1893 Letter from Frances Anne Kemble to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, February, 1839[Occurrences]
2. 1840: 3
1: Steele, Eliza R. Stansbury Letter from Eliza R. Steele, July 12, 1840[Occurrences]
1: Steele, Eliza R. Stansbury Letter from Eliza R. Steele, July 11, 1840[Occurrences]
1: Steele, Eliza R. Stansbury Letter from Eliza R. Steele, June 14, 1840[Occurrences]
3. 1830: 2
1: Willard, Emma Hart, 1787-1870 Letter from Emma Hart Willard, December 8, 1830[Occurrences]
1: Willard, Emma Hart, 1787-1870 Letter from Emma Hart Willard to Almira H. Phelps, December 2, 1830[Occurrences]
4. 1831: 1
1: Willard, Emma Hart, 1787-1870 Letter from Emma Hart Willard, February 14, 1831[Occurrences]


The Sorted by Year Report is useful if one is curious how frequently a word appears over time. Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context Display format.

 

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5.6 NAVIGATING DOCUMENTS FROM WORD SEARCHES

In Context Display one finds several options for viewing more context around one's matched term(s). In addition to "page" and paragraph, you'll see section and page. These divisions reflect the logical organization of the document from smaller parts (paragraph) to larger parts document. What each level represents depends upon the text itself.

Each letter is considered to be a document, no matter how long it is. A diary is divided into paragraphs, sections (typically a day), and documents (a month of entries). For diaries with short entries you will find it easiest to view the full document. For diaries with longer entries you will find it easiest to view section by section.

Any part of any level may be selected by simply clicking on it. Once a user goes to a second level of context, he/she will find the search term(s) still highlighted. One may also find the next and previous sections for each level if one should wish to "flip through" the document by sections (provided that a next or previous section exists for a given level).

Notes: In PhiloLogic notes never interfere when searching the text to which they refer. Note references are linked to notes and occurrences in text from notes are linked to page references. Note and page references can be found on any level of context (e.g., Page, Paragraph, Section, Document), but not from a first-level results screen.

Images: Images are displayed as both inline images and linked to images once the user pulls up any level of context (e.g., Page, Paragraph, Section, Document), but not from a first-level results screen.

 

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